Google+

Super Volcanoes Could Be a Catastrophic For Civilizations

Volcanoes capable of super-eruptions that could be catastrophic for civilizations have short fuses, according to new research conducted at Vanderbilt University.

Super-eruptions are more than 100 times the size of ordinary volcanic eruptions like Mount St. Helens. These types of eruptions spew out super-heated gas, ash and rock, and are capable of leveling entire continents.

Researchers say that there is evidence of one super-eruption that took place in Indonesia 74,000 years ago that came close to wiping out the entire human species.

Geologists believe that a super-eruption is produced by a giant pool of magma that forms a couple of miles below the surface of the Earth, simmering for 100,000 to 200,000 years before erupting. However, a new study says the time frame that these giant magma pools can form and erupt may be shorter than previously thought.

According to the latest study published in the journal PLoS ONE, these giant volcanoes may only exist for a few thousand years before erupting.

“Our study suggests that when these exceptionally large magma pools form they are ephemeral and cannot exist very long without erupting,” Guilherme Gualda, the assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences at Vanderbilt University, said.

The researchers investigated remnants of the Bishop Tuff for their study, which is the Long Valley super-eruption that occurred in east-central California 760,000 years ago.

The team used the latest methods for dating the process of magma formation and found several independent lines of evidence that indicate the magma pool formed within a few thousand years, potentially even within a few hundred years, before erupting.

These giant magma pools are shaped like pancakes and are 10 to 25 miles in diameter, and one half to three miles deep.

During the beginning of developing a super eruption, molten rock in these pools is mostly free from crystals and bubbles, but once they form, these elements that help make up the eruption form gradually and progressively, changing the magma’s physical and chemical properties.

Geologists do not know of any giant crystal-poor magma body that currently exists, but the team believes this magma body only exists for a short period of time, as opposed to previous theories of lasting for thousands of years.

The researchers determined crystallization rates of quartz in order to obtain information about the lifespan of the giant magma bodies.

They developed four independent lines of evidence that agreed that the formation process took less than 10,000 years, and most likely between 500 to 3,000 years, before the eruption.

Gualda and his colleagues suggest that the zircon crystal measurements record the extensive changes that took place in the crust that was required before the giant magma bodies start forming.

“The fact that the process of magma body formation occurs in historical time, instead of geological time, completely changes the nature of the problem,” Gualda wrote.

He said that geologists need to regularly monitor areas where super-eruptions are likely to occur, which would help provide advanced warning if a magma body begins to form.

Image 2 (below): 3-D view of Long Valley, Calif., created by imaging radar on the space shuttle Endeavor. (NASA/JPL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source;  Redorbit

Source: RedOrbit

Entertainment

Southern Belles Vie for Union Soldier’s Affections in Sofia Coppola’s Sublime Tale of Seduction

  The Beguiled Film Review by Kam Williams Southern Belles Vie for Union Soldier's Affections in Sofia Coppola's Sublime Tale of Seduction  The Beguiled is a Civil War saga based on the best seller of the same name by the late novelist/playwright Thomas Cullinan (1919-1995). The sublime tale of seduction was first adapted to the screen in 1971 as a melodramatic revenge flick starring Clint Eastwood. This relatively-refined remake was … [Read More its Good for You.....]

Books

Gil’s Goodwill!

  Gil Robertson The “Book of Black Heroes” Interview with Kam Williams Gil's Goodwill! For nearly three decades, writer/author Gil L. Robertson, IV has used the written word to enlighten, empower and uplift. The one-time political organizer initially made his mark in entertainment journalism, penning over 50 national magazine covers and contributing bylines to a wide range of publications that include the Los Angeles Times, the Atlanta … [Read More its Good for You...]

Art

The Day After the Day Of

  The Day After the Day Of by Paul Ilechko   The sky sheds its tears. This morning is the morning of the day after. The day of mourning, the day after the day of.  I beseech the sky to shed tears in order to wash away the tears on my face.   This is the first day of the time after. This is the beginning of a new time, the days of pain, the days of sorrow. We are in mourning. The sky looks down and sheds its tears for … [Read More its Good For You...]

Real Estate

How to Hire a Winner in Real Estate

  How to Hire a Winner in Real Estate by Amy Lignor   You want to buy that new house because the twins are on their way. Little Betty and Little John are already there, but who knew you would have even more so soon? What’s that? Oh…well, of course, in order to buy that new home with four bedrooms instead of two, you will also need to sell your present homestead in order to get the money needed to start paying on a new one. And, of … [Read More its Good for You.....]

Lifestyle

Ejogo’s Largo!

    Carmen Ejogo The “It Comes at Night” Interview with Kam Williams Ejogo's Largo! Carmen Ejogo has established a distinguished career in both feature films and television. She is best known thus far for her leading role of civil rights activist ‘Coretta Scott King’ opposite David Oyelowo in Ava DuVernay's universally acclaimed SELMA as well as being singled out for her ‘mind-blowing’ lead role as Sister in SPARKLE alongside … [Read More its Good for You...]

Outdoors

Tidewater 230 LXF Combines Luxury, Family Friendly Features

  Tidewater 230 LXF Combines Luxury, Family Friendly Features By Craig Lamb Are you looking for a family friendly, center console fishing rig in the 23-foot class? Your search is over with the 230 LXF from Tidewater Boats. The all-new 230 LXF has a centerline of 23’ with a wide beam spanning 8’ 10.” The boat weighs 3,200 pounds and has a fuel capacity of 95 gallons for peace of mind on long trips. Best balance of performance and fuel … [Read More its Good for You...]

Sports

You Don’t Have to be Greek to be a “Zorba” Fanatic

  You Don’t Have to be Greek to be a “Zorba” Fanatic by Amy Lignor   No, the sport is not called ‘Zorba’, but it most definitely fits for this article’s title. This most unusual sport is actually called ‘Zorbing’, and has caught on like wildfire across the globe. And now, seeing as that the NBA has wrapped, with Golden State proving that they were determined to make amends for last season; and with the NHL closing up shop for the season … [Read More its Good for You...]

Business

Add Value with Summer Home Renovation Projects

  Add Value with Summer Home Renovation Projects by Amy Lignor   There are a whole list of summer activities for you and the kids planned. Most of them, of course, you want to be nothing but fun, such as grilling outside on the patio or swimming in the pool. However, having the backyard pool and patio are two things you really need in place before either of those activities could be enjoyed. And building this area could be a great … [Read More its Good for You...]

Travel

Finding Relaxation in the Most Remote Locations of All

    Finding Relaxation in the Most Remote Locations of All by Amy Lignor   It is a fact that the largest travel locations are also beyond popular. Among the downsides of this fact is that when you’re looking for peace, quiet, and basically a chance to do nothing more than spend time with yourself and, perhaps, one other best friend, the most popular places don’t offer that. In other words, it is the most remote (sometimes most … [Read More its Good for You...]

Green Living

Creating the Perfect Vegetable Garden

  Creating the Perfect Vegetable Garden by Amy Lignor   Many are still dealing with that wintery mix Mother Nature just loves to toss down from the sky this time of year. Yet, that gardener living inside the soul – the one just dreaming of the sunny skies and lazy rainy days that are must-haves in order to grow the best vegetables possible – is already jotting down the facts, tricks and tips they need to know in order to make that … [Read More its Good for You...]